Sunday, July 05, 2015

USB2USB File Management

Now here is a brilliant design highly lauded by the design media back in 2012/2013 that for some reason has yet to see the light of day. Which is a pity really as this has the potential to provide the answer to a number of student final year project ideas. For instance:

[Idea by Kkie21] "I was thinking about writing a program that would be put onto a USB stick and then once connected to a android device it will forensically image it. Everything will be placed on the USB stick which will be write protected once the data is copied."

There had been the suggestion that a USB stick has no screen thus making it difficult to see any form of displayed comparison between DUT storage device and recording device transferred data etc.

I had suggested "Before you give up on your idea, are you are willing to compromise on your physical device?

ChipDrive from Towitoko has previously been used for mobile SIM Card reading. Maybe check with the company to see if they have a USB version. If so then this would be a GUI sufficient to display commands, icons and/or progress indicator. Also there are control keys around the edge that could be used for stop/start etc.

As mentioned above, this device has been used previously and programmed for reading and writing in fields other than time keeping and SIM card reading.

Have a look and see whether it meets your 13-weeks project management schedule."

However, when I look at this prototype design below and the ability of USB2USB to connect with varying interfaces, user navigation buttons and screen etc etc could make this product, subject to spec, suitable for the above project idea. I really like the design of this product.

- 3 millimeters thick
- fits easily into your wallet
- equipped with an OLED touchscreen
- SD card slot
- 2 USB connectors.

[*Yankodesign said] This device reads most popular types of external memory cards and flash drives. Users only need to plug in the external cards or flashdrives to view the files and folders. Then they can browse the contents of the USB flashdrive and a preview of the selected file will be displayed on the background of the touchscreen display. The files can be transferred or copied by using its drag-and-drop function. The USB connectors, which come with flexible rubberized wires that integrate with the shape of the device, are detachable when in use. This device can be charged directly using the USB connector.

Designers: Saharudin Busri, Mohd Nizam Najmuddin, Mohd Rohaizam Mohd Tahar, Nuzairi Yasin, Nazjimee Amat Omar - MIMOS Berhad


Sunday, June 14, 2015

Android Copy and Paste - what risks?

This discussion may be relevant and useful to the process of evidence gathering, eDiscovery investigations and examiner procedures. Experienced examiners or investigators, new to industry or students that may be unaware of this subject matter.

The Android clipboard-based framework (Android Content Provider) enables copy and paste directly to and from the clipboard not only of simple text but also complex data structures, text and binary stream data and application assets.

Key Classes

- ClipboardManager
- ClipData
- ClipData.Item
- ClipDescription
- Uri
- ContentProvider
- Intent
This content provider enables the distribution of objects stored on the clipboard to be distributed among user applications subject to the permission granted for copying and pasting outside of a particular application.
The practical application for using clipboard copy and paste might be generally understood by smartphone users but the less experienced smartphone user may not know or realise that items stored on the clipboard may still reside in memory on particular smartphones long after the paste function was used. The same might also apply to examiners relying on extracted and harvested data from a DUT (device under test) using a particular examination tool of choice. The tool may not logically recover clipboard objects. Moreover, the copied data may not be distinguishable from a deleted SMS message when carving data from a physical extracted dump (JTAG/chip off), so checking the clipboard identifies is important.
Conduct a test on a smartphone of your choice. Tests run on a random number of makes/models not all were found to allow revisiting pasted data from previous copying, not all allowed data copied in one application (e.g. WhatsApp) to be made available to another (e.g. text messaging). Thus, manual examination might need to be applied during an examination process in order to determine during discovery any vital data (evidence) excluded during a tool’s recovery procedure.
As there are variances between makes/models it equally raises concerns of any missed opportunities to recover data during past examination.
DUT – Samsung GT-I9100P
Android OS version – Ice Cream Sandwich


The manual examination test applied: select a new, blank SMS test message page and apply continued finger pressure to the text message field. The DUT vibrates and the dialogue box offers two options: PASTE or CLIPBOARD (see image below). Select CLIPBOARD.

The DUT responds with multiple choice of previously copied data that may be reused.  The first entry box is a copy message from the Samsung SMS text message application. The copied data with a stated date and time stamp in the fourth entry box is data copied from a message in WhatsApp.

Note the format change of the date and the clock is out by one minute, when cross-referenced to the WhatsApp image below. Is this down conversion from one application to another?  Are there two clocks being used on the same smartphone? Was the SMS message created first and copied and pasted into WhatsApp? Or is it something else?

Further issues to be considered. Subject to the matter as mentioned above regarding permission granted to copy and paste outside of a particular application; Android in itself does not require any permission to be entered to write data to or read data from the clipboard. Consequently, this can leave a security loophole in place where an application requires a user to copy their credentials (passwords, PINs etc.) first before the user may make use of an application.
Moreover, the android.content.ClipboardManager.OnPrimaryClipChangedListener is an interface within Android SDK enabling listener call-back that is invoked each time a clipboard item changes. A change in password, PIN etc updated by a particular application could update the clipboard previously stored data. This could be problematical by causing a breach in security if malware were to be unintentionally installed to the smartphone and then credentials leaked to an outside source. The smartphone security for copy and paste therefore can only be as good as the permission granted within the applications being installed and used.

Observations. When making analysis of security an examiner/investigator simply referring to the latest makes/models of smartphones or apps on the market may well be flawed in using that analytical approach. There are a considerable number of handsets out there which are in use on a day-to-day basis for work and personal activity. These can be e.g. 5yrs to 10yrs old. Operators are currently offering an alternative to subsidised handsets by offering SIM ONLY contracts. The smartphone won’t be updated. Companies may well fail in their fiduciary responsibilities and duty of care at board level owed to the company to offload natural company expenditure by avoiding providing communication devices to company employees. To foster the notion to employees to BYOD (bring your own device) the employee is in fact playing a part in subsidising a company’s communications system and therefore its security; retains the opportunity for security loopholes to be created by employers assuming that smartphone users know everything about their smartphone, which is a fallacy.

Sunday, June 07, 2015

Metrology - USB part 1

With smartphones, tablets and other devices fitting the description Size-Scaled Digital Technology (SSDT) using USB physical connectivity provides for the simplest of examination DUT illustrations e.g the combination of three separate entities involved in inter-connection during an examination.

1) DUT (the target device (SSDT) containing suspected evidence
2) The physical medium (USB) to carry the source data to the examination tool
3) The examination tool (ET) used to extract and harvest evidence

It is possible to extrapolate even greater numbers of inter-connected entities but then it would be simpler, if I were to do that, to simply write a book instead of writing this blog post. Moreover, greater numbers of inter-connections exponentially introduce the potential for higher risk of failure relevant to an entity's MTBF (mean time between failure) and MTTF (mean time to failure). 

                [”British scientist, Sir William Thomson (Lord Kelvin, 1824 - 1907),
                   concisely captured the aspect of knowledge so that others can study
                   the observations and apply the results without having to repeat the
                   experiment, when he wrote: “When you can measure what you are
                   speaking about and express it in numbers, you know what you are
                   talking about.”]

SSDT - USB - ET provides a useful basis upon which to consider metrological traceability:

"A core concept in metrology is metrological traceability,[7] defined by the Joint Committee for Guides in Metrology as "property of a measurement result whereby the result can be related to a reference through a documented unbroken chain of calibrations, each contributing to the measurement uncertainty".[8] Metrological traceability permits comparison of measurements, whether the result is compared to the previous result in the same laboratory, a measurement result a year ago, or to the result of a measurement performed anywhere else in the world."

An excellent source of reference for definitions for the science of measurement is:

International vocabulary of metrology — Basic and general concepts and associated terms (VIM)

Vocabulaire international de métrologie — Concepts fondamentaux et généraux et termes associés (VIM)

International vocabulary of metrology – Basic and general concepts and associated terms  (VIM) 3rd edition  (2008 version with minor corrections)
Vocabulaire international de métrologie – Concepts fondamentaux et généraux et termes associés (VIM)
3e édition  (Version 2008 avec corrections mineures).

Why have I shown two versions of the same document? Traceability is the answer. Building a quality system requires identification of reference materials upon which test measurements are (or have been in the past) conducted.  Anyone involved in lab preparation and of running a lab should be aware that standards iso17025 and iso9001 identify principles that may be adopted for a wide range of industries etc. It is only when drilling down into how these principles should be applied in practice does one become aware of how, metaphorically speaking, naked one is without something or someone else pointing to a path to follow.

VIM is an acknowledged and established international standard that can be referenced for defining the naming conventions for testing. Of course, there is still the need for knowledge, skill and experience for operating under lab conditions. Early works of Scroggie and Johnstone even today provide useful observations about various aspects of testing involved in a laboratory environment can be found in Radio and Electronic Laboratory Handbook 1980 edition (Marcus Graham Scroggie and George Gordon Johnstone ISBN 0-408-00373-1 and ISBN 13: 9780408003735). The book is available from Amazon and from reputable booksellers.

There are a range of other reference materials from testing through to calibration. For instance NASA (Deep Space Network) ;  Laboratories for the Design and Assembly of Electronic Devices using Surface Mount Components conferencepaper.pdf ;  Handbook of Laboratory Experiments in Electrical and Electronics Vol.3 (Adamu Murtala Zungeru; James G. Ambafi ISBN 9781497507203) ; and the list goes on. These reference materials are in addition to publications produced by the FBI, NIST, ACPO etc...

This discussion started out by referring to the physical medium USB to carry the source data from the DUT to the examination tool (ET). The relevance of doing so is that if the examiner eliminates the medium as the cause for failure or corrupted evidence then the logical conundrum that remains, is the DUT can be at fault, is the ET can be at fault or are both DUT/ET together faulty?

To understand the technical properties for USB look here:

USB Type C

This version of USB specification is identified, not simply from personal experience, but due to industry adoption of the standard:



Image credited to

(c) etc...

A testing schedule for MTBF and MTTF cannot be created unless the device class using a version of the USB specifications is corroborated:

Device Classes (some useful resource materials)

Moreover, if USB 3.0 is backward compatible with USB 2.0 could USB 3.0 be used as the de facto standard for all SSDTs to assist defining MTBF and MTTF?

What about USB plug/port sizes, would these create different test requirements?

Lastly, and to close Part 1 of this blog discussion, there is another question equally worth asking: "Does a manufacturer's/supplier's warranty for 12 or 24 months mean that lab testing is not necessary for that period of the warranty in question?

Previous discussion under Metrology

Knowing DUT memory

Saturday, May 30, 2015


I haven't produced breakout web-links to the other forum discussions as this post is only raising a point about Metrology and standardisation in digital forensics.

A recent forum question posted by a PhD student sought ideas for a research area. I suggested the following:

You may wish to consider the process of:

(a) examination of mobile/feature/smart phones, embedded devices etc with respect to
(b) evidential examination aligned to iso17025 et al with specific attention interest and engagement to
(c) Metrology - tools used, processes in place and procedures followed
(d) to determine possible impact on evidential results and outcomes.

There is little published study in this area for digital forensics.

The above suggestion, along with suggestions made by others, produced a second forum thread specifically asking about standardisation in digital forensics testing and referred to my comments in the other forum thread. So I made further observations:

The reason why I mentioned Metrology is to actually see whether it is possible to have a minimum standard. In other words, start small and work in areas where commonality in agreement is high amongst those working in digital forensics.

Even before even writing test scripts or anything else start with e.g. the humble physical leads/cables and terminating plugs. They interface with the test tool and the target device. What forensics requirement should there be for these cables/leads/plugs e.g. VGA, DVI, HDMI, Ethernet etc etc. How many people keep a traceable record of what is being used to acquire evidence in the test lab.

iso9001 has been mentioned and this standard provides a useful guide on record keeping. In most cases user take for granted that the cable/lead/plug is ok and just swap it out if it is deemed not working? Simple questions:

1) Is there a cable/lead tester on the market?
2) What results can be obtained?
3) How to determine output results?
4) Compare manufacturing guidelines for MTTF and MTBF?
5) Can the results scrutinised be improved?
6) Can a minimum standard be achieved.

Mundane and tedious testing is never welcomed, but long before digital forensics raised its head these tests were going on. My own earlier experiences were in telecomms manufacturing. We worked with factory type approval guidelines BABT340 and iso9001. Record keeping and testing of tools was fundamental and mandatory to retain quality. Devices were subjected to standards such as bs6301, bs6305, bs6317, bs6789 etc. I still believe that BABT340 and other standards and guidelines for the manufacturing and supply of telecomms and datacomms products for placing on the marketplace are far more aligned to digital forensics and provide industry-specific stepping stones guidance towards minimum standards because all manufacturers were being channelled through the same process.

Just because some of the examples given by the above standards have been replaced with EU or other standards, doesn't mean to say we cannot learn from those industry-specific experience and adopt a similar system.

From what I see going on and hear from others in digital forensics labs cables/leads/plugs can be a source of problems in the acquisition process yet no common ground has been established for their use. There are ISO framework standards adopted for digital forensic labs, but those have been adopted after the fact of produced evidence. But what are the framework standards or common ground documentation directed towards the tools actually being used prior to acquisition and generation of evidence?

Knowing DUT memory

A newcomer to mobile phone examination asked a question on another forum:

"My first question is a general one: how can I know that the data I get in an extraction is everything that was on the device? For example, I recently acquired an image from a ZTE Z667G with prior knowledge that there were messages between 2 subjects using Facebook Messenger. The device was not able to be rooted with Oxygen's root exploit, so I used the Android backup method. When I began to analyze the data, I noted that Facebook messenger was not in the listed applications; also, none of the database files for that app were acquired. Had I not been told about the messages by the detective working that case, that data would have likely been missed. Without going through the device manually, how can I know for sure that what I'm getting is everything that is there?"

There is a temptation to reply with "try another tool". However, the opening question was "how can I know that the data I get in an extraction is everything that was on the device?", which suggests a knowledge of the memory where a mobile handset can store messages.

Knowing the memory available and areas where data maybe stored is another aspect an examiner may wish to consider as a planned exercise before commencing examination of the target DUT (device under test). As a simple exercise consider:

a) Handset memory
b) (U)SIM memory
c) SD card memory

Query: the examiner is interested to know the memory available in an e.g. Samsung Galaxy S6 edge (GSM)?

One popular website used by mobile phone examiners is Phonescoop:

The site identifies the following:

32 GB internal storage, raw hardware
23 GB internal storage, available to user
also available in 64 and 128 GB versions

SIM card size
Nano (4FF)

Is there any info that identifies whether an SD card may be used? Check for yourself at the link above.

The newcomer referred to the ZTE Z667G. Would this be the correct model at Phonescoop?

However, a Z667g user manual suggests a different name:

and another website identifies the Z667g under a different name:

Could that suggest variances between the different model names??

As an examiner can you verify or validate the accuracy of the Phonescoop details elsewhere?
e.g. are there any other website that may provide details? There are many, so here is another link:

Finally, what does the ZTE manufacturer website state about the ZTE Z667G?

There are a range of tools out there each to assist the examiner extract and harvest data; but be mindful, a tool may provide answers but a tool should not determine the questions and by extension think for you.

Sunday, April 19, 2015

FREE iPhoneReader research tool

Research and development tools can provide students, newcomers and experienced examiners in the mobile forensics community with practical experience and exposure to logically recovered data isolating the various types of recovered data through a single GUI. Additionally, such tools help develop analytical and assessment skillsets. iPhoneReader.exe is one such tool that can help you do that.

Credit to University of New Haven - image GUI LiFE iPhoneReader.exe

This FREE research tool, developed in 2014 by researchers at University of New Haven (UNH) Cyber Forensics Research & Education Group / Lab ( ), LiFE (Logical iOS Forensic Examiner) is an open source tool for iOS backup examination.

The research tool can be downloaded here:

Friday, April 10, 2015

Free Mobile JTAG Training and Tools

Visitors to may recall a discussion thread posted back in 2012 regarding a JTAG Tutorial The purpose of that thread was to enable students, newcomers and experienced mobile/smart phone examiners to get a feel for JTAG before undertaking such examinations or purchasing tools etc.

Today, Kevin Swartz from has released a FREE three-part training course specifically for JTAGing smart phones. Kevin has dropped a line to me saying "Hi Greg, yes, please feel free to link to any of our free resources pages:".

The FREE three-part training course:

PDF Download:

JTAG 101 videos:

JTAG 102 videos:

Thanks Kevin. You're a decent chap for your kind gesture to help out students, newcomers and experienced examiners in the community.

Wednesday, April 08, 2015

Quoting Statistics

Whether you are a prosecution or defence barrister quoting statistical facts has its benefits when quoted to the jury. Using Stats is not without its pros and cons. However, with the ever increasing size/quantity of network traffic and stored data it appears inevitable describing data in a meaningful way to a jury using statistical statements is being re-defined on a annual basis. For example, compare Big Data ( and analysis of data at the transport layer level (Internet Small Computer System Interface (iSCSI) Protocol (Consolidated) -

Example 1 - GSM SIM Card Authentication
Within the 2G digital mobile telephone (GSM) arena, as you know, makes use of a SIM card. The security implemented in SIM by those commissioned to create its security (Moule, M; & Pautet, M-B; published 1992) introduced the probability that with the subscriber identity (IMSI), secret key (Ki), random challenge (Rand) with a corresponding output generated from the security algorithms A3/A8 (COMP128) to produce a Signed RESponse (SRES) in consequence should generate the probability of any other subscriber producing the same SRES (to make a mobile call, with or without ciphering,), it has been said, can be in the order of 1 chance in 4 Billion.

A counter argument might be that with repeated used of TMSI, ciphering key etc the order of chance maybe considerably less but has yet to be shown to be under 1 chance in 2 billion in the ordinary use of the security. When making analysis of the 3G and 4G security authentication algorithms it can be understood the order of magnitude has again increased exponentially beyond 2G.

However, the above would have no relevance where a call is recorded in a call record where that call has been added but not as a consequence of the subscriber having made the call. An example, upon checking my son's billing record to find there were numerous entries of a regular event of £3.50 for a call being added at regular intervals but at exactly the same time of day after 3pm. The operator was not able to qualify that a call had even taken place, thus remove all those charges. This highlights how call records can and do get manipulated. Had the account been pre-paid what would have been the chances to have identified those calls?

Example 2 - DNA (Profiles, Loci et al)
The principal prosecutor, Assistant U.S. Attorney Michael T. Ambrosino (2006), countered that there was no scientific controversy and that prosecutors should not have to qualify their assertion that the rarity of Jenkins's profile among African Americans was one in 26 quintillion (26,000,000,000,000,000,000).

A chimera is an organism which exhibits chimerism. Chimerism is the occurrence of more than one genetically distinct cell lines in the same individual. Natural chimerism is quite rare in humans, but much more common in lower species. Natural chimerism occurs when the early embryos of two fraternal twins fuse into a single embryo, producing an individual with tissues of two different genetic compositions. Artificial chimerism is the result of organ or tissue transplants between individuals. The journal Nature had an excellent article on human chimerism in Volume 417, Pages 10-11 (02 May 2002).

Association of pigmentary anomalies with chromosomal and genetic mosaicism and chimerism.
Thomas IT, Frias JL, Cantu ES, Lafer CZ, Flannery DB, Graham JG Jr.
Department of Pediatrics, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha.

We have evaluated eight patients with pigmentary anomalies reminiscent of incontinentia pigmenti or hypomelanosis of Ito. All demonstrated abnormal lymphocyte karyotypes with chromosomal mosaicism in lymphocytes and/or skin fibroblasts. In seven the skin was darkly pigmented, and in all of these seven cases the abnormal pigmentation followed (**)Blaschko lines. The literature contains at least 36 similar examples of an association between pigmentary anomalies and chromosomal mosaicism, as well as five examples of an association with chimerism. The pigmentary anomalies are pleomorphic, and the chromosomal anomalies involve autosomes and sex chromosomes. The pigmentation patterns are reminiscent of the archetypal paradigm seen in allophenic mice and demonstrate the clonal origin of melanoblasts from neural crest precursors. Patients with anomalous skin pigmentation, particularly when it follows a pattern of Blaschko lines, should be appropriately evaluated for a possible association with chromosomal or genetic mosaicism or chimerism.

(**)Blaschko lines are chevron type alternating patterns that appear in skin pigmentation associated with chimera giving a directly observable symptom of at least dermal chimerisation
Am J Hum Genet. 1989 Aug;45(2):193-205

The above examples provide some observations about the pros/cons of quoting stats.

Digitally speaking, we some times have to refer to size/quantity of data, too. It is useful therefore to have some analogies that can be used to identify the size/quantity of data:

Example 3 - Bits, Nibbles and Bytes

Bytes(8 bits)
◾0.1 bytes: A binary decision
◾1 byte: A single character
◾10 bytes: A single word
◾100 bytes: A telegram OR A punched card

Kilobyte (1000 bytes)
◾1 Kilobyte: A very short story
◾2 Kilobytes: A Typewritten page
◾10 Kilobytes: An encyclopaedic page OR A deck of punched cards
◾50 Kilobytes: A compressed document image page
◾100 Kilobytes: A low-resolution photograph
◾200 Kilobytes: A box of punched cards
◾500 Kilobytes: A very heavy box of punched cards

Megabyte (1 000 000 bytes)
◾1 Megabyte: A small novel OR A 3.5 inch floppy disk
◾2 Megabytes: A high resolution photograph
◾5 Megabytes: The complete works of Shakespeare OR 30 seconds of TV-quality video
◾10 Megabytes: A minute of high-fidelity sound OR A digital chest X-ray
◾20 Megabytes: A box of floppy disks
◾50 Megabytes: A digital mammogram
◾100 Megabytes: 1 meter of shelved books OR A two-volume encyclopaedic book
◾200 Megabytes: A reel of 9-track tape OR An IBM 3480 cartridge tape
◾500 Megabytes: A CD-ROM OR The hard disk of a PC

Gigabyte (1 000 000 000 bytes)
◾1 Gigabyte: A pickup truck filled with paper OR A symphony in high-fidelity sound OR A movie at TV quality
◾2 Gigabytes: 20 meters of shelved books OR A stack of 9-track tapes
◾5 Gigabytes: An 8mm Exabyte tape
◾10 Gigabytes:
◾20 Gigabytes: A good collection of the works of Beethoven OR 5 Exabyte tapes OR A VHS tape used for digital data
◾50 Gigabytes: A floor of books OR Hundreds of 9-track tapes
◾100 Gigabytes: A floor of academic journals OR A large ID-1 digital tape
◾200 Gigabytes: 50 Exabyte tapes

Terabyte (1 000 000 000 000 bytes)
◾1 Terabyte: An automated tape robot OR All the X-ray films in a large technological hospital OR 50000 trees made into paper and printed OR Daily rate of EOS data (1998)
◾2 Terabytes: An academic research library OR A cabinet full of Exabyte tapes
◾10 Terabytes: The printed collection of the US Library of Congress
◾50 Terabytes: The contents of a large Mass Storage System

Petabyte (1 000 000 000 000 000 bytes)
◾1 Petabyte: 5 years of EOS data (at 46 mbps)
◾2 Petabytes: All US academic research libraries
◾20 Petabytes: Production of hard-disk drives in 1995
◾200 Petabytes: All printed material OR Production of digital magnetic tape in 1995

Exabyte (1 000 000 000 000 000 000 bytes)
◾5 Exabytes: All words ever spoken by human beings.
◾From wikipedia: ◾The world's technological capacity to store information grew from 2.6 (optimally compressed) exabytes in 1986 to 15.8 in 1993, over 54.5 in 2000, and to 295 (optimally compressed) exabytes in 2007. This is equivalent to less than one 730-MB CD-ROM per person in 1986 (539 MB per person), roughly 4 CD-ROM per person of 1993, 12 CD-ROM per person in the year 2000, and almost 61 CD-ROM per person in 2007. Piling up the imagined 404 billion CD-ROM from 2007 would create a stack from the earth to the moon and a quarter of this distance beyond (with 1.2 mm thickness per CD).
◾The world’s technological capacity to receive information through one-way broadcast networks was 432 exabytes of (optimally compressed) information in 1986, 715 (optimally compressed) exabytes in 1993, 1,200 (optimally compressed) exabytes in 2000, and 1,900 in 2007.
◾According to the CSIRO, in the next decade, astronomers expect to be processing 10 petabytes of data every hour from the Square Kilometre Array (SKA) telescope.[11] The array is thus expected to generate approximately one exabyte every four days of operation. According to IBM, the new SKA telescope initiative will generate over an exabyte of data every day. IBM is designing hardware to process this information.

Zettabyte (1 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 bytes)
◾From wikipedia: ◾The world’s technological capacity to receive information through one-way broadcast networks was 0.432 zettabytes of (optimally compressed) information in 1986, 0.715 in 1993, 1.2 in 2000, and 1.9 (optimally compressed) zettabytes in 2007 (this is the informational equivalent to every person on earth receiving 174 newspapers per day).[9][10]
◾According to International Data Corporation, the total amount of global data is expected to grow to 2.7 zettabytes during 2012. This is 48% up from 2011.[11]
◾Mark Liberman calculated the storage requirements for all human speech ever spoken at 42 zettabytes if digitized as 16 kHz 16-bit audio. This was done in response to a popular expression that states "all words ever spoken by human beings" could be stored in approximately 5 exabytes of data (see exabyte for details). Liberman did "freely confess that maybe the authors [of the exabyte estimate] were thinking about text."[12]
◾Research from the University of Southern California reports that in 2007, humankind successfully sent 1.9 zettabytes of information through broadcast technology such as televisions and GPS.[13]
◾Research from the University of California, San Diego reports that in 2008, Americans consumed 3.6 zettabytes of information.

Yottabyte (1 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 bytes)

See -

Other interpretations, see  -